We can define “Quarks” as
The “Elementary” Or The “Smallest” Particle From Which Electron's, Protons, Neutrons & Each And Every Particle In This Universe Is Made Up Of. In Other Words We Can Say That, At Present Quarks Are The “Fundamental Building Blocks Of Nature”.
Quarks combine to form “Hadrons”, Hadrons are Composite Particles (Composite Particles : A particle that constitute of two or more particles). Combination of Three Quarks lead to “Baryon”, “Protons” & “Neutrons”. Baryons & Protons & Neutrons are most stable combination of Quarks. The name of Quark was given by Sir “Murray Gell - Mann” & “George Zweig”. Sir Murray Gell - Mann was a physicist from “Caltech ( California Institute Of Technology )”. In the year 1969, Sir Murray Gell - Mann was honoured with the “Noble Prize” for his work on “Elementary Particles”. The name of “Quark” came from a beautiful quotation which was given by Sir “James Joyce”,
THREE QUARKS FOR MUSTER MARK.
There are numerous varieties of Quarks, Thought to have at least “Six Flavours”, Known as
DOWN QUARK UP QUARK
STRANGE QUARK CHARMED QUARK
TOP QUARK BOTTOM QUARK
Each Flavours come in “Three Colors”
Sir George Zewig
Quarks have much Smaller Wavelengths of Visible Light & do not have any Colors in normal sense, This phenomena also known as “Colour Confinement”. The colors given above are just the imaginative way of naming new particles and their phenomena. These colours above are related to the “Colour Charge”. Colour Charge is the property of Quarks which is related to the particle Strong Interactions.
For Example :
A Proton Or A Neutron Are Made Up Of Three Quarks One Of Each Colour ( Red, Green & Blue ) .
A Proton Constitute Of All Three Colours Of Quarks ( Red, Green & Blue ). They have “Two Up Quarks” & “One Down Quark”.
A Neutron Also Constitute Of All Three Colours Of Quark (Red, Green & Blue). But They Have “One Up Quark” & “Two Down Quark”.
Many more particles can be made by the combination of other Quarks (Strange,Charmed,Bottom & Top). But these all have much greater mass and Decay very rapidly into Protons & Neutrons. Up & Down Quarks have the “Lowest Masses” of all Quarks. The “Heavier Quarks” rapidly changes into Up Quarks & Down Quarks through the process known as “Particle Decay”.
Quarks have intrinsic properties like Spin, Electric Charge, Colour Charge, Mass. Which are been discussed in the further posts of “Building Blocks Of Nature”. You can directly navigate to the page by just clicking on to the Properties of Quarks you would like to know about.